Hammurabi Issues Code Of Law This Was About 2000 B.C A History of Safety

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A History of Safety

Throughout history, the safety and health movement has been affected by legislation. In the following safety and health chronology, notable events, individuals, and legislative actions are drawn to illustrate the theme that the safety professional/practitioner is and has been an integral part of those preventive experiences that make up the life story.

The Ancient Chinese (c 2,500 BC) spread the risk of loss by placing 1/6 of their harvest in each of six boats traveling to market.

Hammurabi (c 2,000 BC), the ruler of Babylon, was responsible for the Code of Hammurabi, part of which is similar to today’s workers’ compensation laws.

The ancient Egyptians (as early as 1600 BC) recognized the dangers of breathing the fumes produced by smelting silver and gold.

Hippocrates (c 460-c 377 BC), the father of contemporary medicine, established a link between the respiratory problems of Greek stonemasons and the stone dust that surrounded them.

In ancient Rome, some slaves who survived the dangerous work of launching a ship were given their freedom.

In 1601, the first English law of “assurance” (an earlier term for insurance) was enacted. This law covers marine risks.

In 1667, the Great Fire of London (September 2-7, 1666), caused the first English fire insurance laws to be enacted.

In 1700, Bernardino Ramazzini, an Italian physician, published the first thesis that attempted to prove the connections between work and disease.

In 1730, Benjamin Franklin organized the first firefighting company in the United States as well as identifying the symptoms of lead poisoning with Dr. Evans.

In 1775, English doctors discovered that chimney sweeps, exposed to coal tar residues in their daily work, showed a higher incidence of cancer than the general population.

In 1792, the first charter writing marine and fire insurance was granted in the United States.

In 1812, the Embargo of the War of 1812 encouraged the development of the textile industry in New England and the establishment of manufacturing companies. These early insurance companies inspected properties for hazards and suggested loss control and prevention methods to obtain low rates for their policyholders.

In 1864, the Pennsylvania Mine Safety Act (PMSA) was passed into law.

In 1864, the first accident insurance policy in North America was issued.

In 1867, the state of Massachusetts began the first government-sponsored factory inspection program.

In 1877, the state of Massachusetts passed a law requiring precautions for dangerous machinery, and took authority for implementing factory inspection programs.

In 1878, the first recorded call of a labor organization for a federal occupational safety and health law was heard.

In 1896, an association to prevent fires and write codes and standards, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), was founded.

In 1902, the state of Maryland passed the first workers’ compensation law.

In 1904, the state government’s first attempt to force employers to pay their employees for work injuries was overturned when the Supreme Court declared Maryland’s workers’ compensation law unconstitutional.

On March 21, 1911, in the Asch Building in New York City, nearly 150 women and young women died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire due to locked fire exits and insufficient fire extinguishers. extinguishing system. A major turning point in history, this fire changed government regulation and laws established to protect workers.

In 1911, a professional, technical organization responsible for developing safety codes for boilers and elevators, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was founded. A17 Safety Code published.

1911-1915, During this five-year period, 30 states passed workers’ compensation laws.

On October 14, 1911, the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) was founded in New York City. Originally named the United Society of Casualty Inspectors. ASSE is dedicated to the development of accident prevention methods, and to the advancement of safety engineering as a profession.

The California Railroad Commission, now known as the California Public Utilities Commission, was created by constitutional amendment to oversee railroad safety, including safety at highway/rail crossings.

In 1912, a group of engineers representing insurance companies, industry, and government met in Milwaukee to exchange data on accident prevention. The organization formed at this meeting was to become the National Safety Council (NSC). (Today, the NSC carries out major safety campaigns for the general public, as well as helping industry develop safety promotion programs.)

In 1916, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of state workers’ compensation laws.

In 1918, the American Standards Association was founded. Responsible for developing many voluntary safety standards, some of which are referenced in laws, today, it is now called the American National Standards Institute [ANSI].

In 1931 the Uniform Traffic Code was established due to the increase in speed and volume of traffic and car accidents. The code covers four separate acts: motor vehicle registration, driver’s license, car anti-theft and uniform traffic regulation.

In 1936, Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, called for a federal occupational safety and health law. This action came a full 58 years after organized labor’s first recorded request for a law like this.

In 1936, the Walsh-Healey (Public Contracts) Act was passed. This law requires that all federal contracts be performed in a healthy and safe work environment.

By 1948, all states (48 at the time) had workers’ compensation laws.

In 1952, the Coal Mine Safety Act (CMSA) was passed into law.

In 1960, specific safety standards were promulgated for the Walsh-Healey Act.

On January 3, 1961, an accident at an experimental nuclear reactor at a federal installation near Idaho Falls, ID killed three workers. It was the first fatality in US nuclear reactor operations.

In 1966, the Metal and Nonmetallic Mines Safety Act (MNMSA) was passed.

In 1966, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and its divisions, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), were established.

In 1968, President Lyndon Johnson called for a federal occupational safety and health law.

In 1969, the Construction Safety Act (CSA) was passed.

In 1969, the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP) was established. This organization certifies practitioners in the safety profession.

In 1970, President Richard Nixon signed into law the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), thereby creating the OSHA administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

In 1970, on January 1, the National Environmental Policy Act, (NEPA) was signed. It provides a national charter for the protection and development of the environment and creates the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

On May 29, 1971, the first OSHA standards were adopted to provide a basis for protecting safety and health in American workplaces.

In 1972, the Consumers Product Safety Act (CPSA) was signed into law.

In 1976, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was passed and became the instrument that regulates the management of hazardous wastes.

In 1980, to address hazardous waste management issues, the Pollution Liability Insurance Association (PLIA) was formed.

Jan 16, 1981 OSHA updates business electrical standards to simplify compliance and performance method adoption.

1991 North Carolina Plant Fire kills 25 workers and injures 49 at the Imperial Chicken processing plant in Hamlet NC. Employees were trapped inside due to padlocked doors to prevent vandals.

Sep 11, 2001, 2886 work-related deaths including 537 rescue workers, as a result of terrorist attacks on the NY City World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and plane crashes.

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